To through the different life stages. Every child in

 

 

 

 

 

To conclude, every adult in
a child’s life should make sure that they are supporting children develop in
every possible way. The skills that a child learns through their first stages
of development will not only help them now ,but they will use these skills they
have developed throughout their whole life and will continue to keep on
developing more new skills as they grow through the different life stages.
Every child in their life may have many factors that may be affecting their
health, development and well- being. All adults in a child’s life should make
sure that these factors are not affecting the development of a child, but
instead the developmental needs of a child are always being met regardless of
what factors are affecting a child. Furthermore, if children are not meeting
developmental stages early year providers should try and make sure that
specific measures are taken into place in order to help the child meet the
required developmental needs for their age. All children are unique and they
all learn in different ways which is a key aspect that everyone working with
children should take into consideration.

A disadvantage of the social
learning theory is that it does not address the fact that children do not only
learn from copying the behaviour of others, but however they also learn through
carrying out creative plays. This is a disadvantage because this theory does
not show that humans have a creative side which helps them learn a lot. For
example, a child in a nursery may learn through reading various books or
playing with jigsaw puzzles. Another disadvantage of the social learning theory
is that it states that children watch and copy the behaviour of the people
around them. A disadvantage of this theory is that some children may be very
young and may not understand when negative behaviour is being negatively reinforced.
If a young child does not understand negative reinforcement this may mean that
they will still copy the negative behaviour that they have observed. For
example, if a one year old has seen their siblings fighting they will copy the
behaviour they have observed even though it may have been negatively reinforced
by the child’s mother by telling the child off. 

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There are many advantages of
the social learning theory. An advantage of this theory is that if
reinforcements are put into place you can easily see whether the reinforcement has
had a positive or negative effect on the child. For example, if a positive
reinforcement has worked the child may stop displaying the negative behaviour
that they used to display before positive behaviour was introduced to them. If
the outcomes of the reinforcement can be seen easily this will mean that if the
reinforcement is not working effectively then other reinforcements can be put
into place which may be used in order to improve the challenging behaviour of a
child. Another advantage of the social learning theory is that if a child is
displaying negative behaviour early year providers can explain to the child how
positive behaviour will be praised and rewarded. For example, a nursery teacher
may say to a child that if you share a toy with another child you will be given
a golden star which will help the child to understand how good behaviour will
be praised. By explaining to a child about being praised or rewarded for a
positive behaviour it will mean that the child will try to change their
negative behaviour in order to maintain being praised all the times.

Another disadvantage of this
theory is that the child will rely on their main care giver to feel safe and
protected. If a child only relies on their main care giver to feel safe this will
mean that the child may feel distressed or they become unresponsive in
situations where they are not able to rely on their main care giver. If a child
is not responsive this may mean that their needs may not be able to be met by
early year providers who are there to enable children to develop positive developments.

On the other hand, there are
some disadvantages of the attachment theory. Firstly, a disadvantage of the attachment
theory is that Bowlby placed importance of a child having a close attachment
with one mother like figure. This is a weakness of this theory as some children
may have more than one mother like figure in their life that they have a close
attachment with. Another weakness of the attachment theory is that the child
may have a close attachment with their main care giver which means that the
child might find it stressful or upsetting when they are not with their main
care giver. If a child finds it emotionally stressful not being with their main
care giver this may mean that the child might find it difficult or scared to
build relationships with new people. It is important for children to be able to
build relationships so that they can start to form their own social groups.

There are many strengths of
the attachment theory. This theory believes that every child will have one
person who is their main care giver whom they will have a close attachment too.
A strength of having a close attachment to a person is that the child will feel
secure, protected and loved. Developing these feelings as a young child will
help the child to understand when they are older the importance of having
secure attachments, which they can use adapt in their life. If a child when
they are young has good close attachments with their main care giver they will
be able to provide this to their children and therefore this will help them to
build a good secure relationship with their own child. Another strength of the
attachment theory is that if a child has a good attachment with their main care
giver they will feel emotionally stable and they may feel confident to explore
the environment around them in which they can learn from.

Some parents may neglect
their children. If a child is neglected by their parents this may mean that
their parents may be uninvolved with them. In addition, if a child is neglected
the child’s health and well- being may not be taken care of by their parents. A
negative aspect of a child being neglected is that they may never feel happy in
their life because they may be mentally and physically harmed by the neglect. If
a child is mentally harmed by neglect the child may feel scared or they may not
know how to form positive attachments with anyone, as they have never
experienced any forms of attachments with anyone in their life before. Another
negative aspect of neglect is that sometimes the effects of neglect can
sometimes be life- long (Reid, J.2013). If
the effects of neglect are life-long children may not be able to get over their
neglect and this may affect their mental health which could lead them to
developing life-long mental health issues. Life-long damages of neglect may
mean that a child might never be able to form a relationship with someone in
which they offer affection to someone as they may be fearful of neglect
occurring again.

On the other hand, there are
some disadvantages of the authoritative parenting style. A disadvantage of this
parenting style is that parents of this parenting style have high expectations
for their children. This is a weakness of this parenting style as children may
feel pressured to meet the precise expectations set by their parents. For
example, children may be expected by their parents to achieve a certain grade
at school. If a child is not able to meet these high expectations the child may
develop low self- esteem levels or may lose their confidence if they fail to
meet these high expectations. In addition, if children are not able to meet
high expectations they may feel like they have failed which could result in
them developing mental health issues such as anxiety. Children should have a
balance between freedom and control (Carlson, Dunham, Dermer, 2011). A weakness of the
authoritative parenting style is that children are given freedom to do whatever
they want and parents are not controlling. If parents are not controlling with
their children this means that children will do whatever they want and they may
carry out anti – social behaviour which they may continue on to their adult
life if they are not being controlled.

There are various different
theories of child development. Lev Vygotsy was a theorist who believed that parenting
of a child was important, as through parenting children would be able to learn
and develop as an individual. Authoritative parenting is when children are always
given support by their parents. An advantage of this parenting style is that
because children are given all of the support they require this means that it is
more likely that the child would not develop any mental health issues such as depression.
This is because the child would be able to talk about their concerns and
discuss any issues they have with their parents. If a child does not develop
any mental health issues this will mean that the child will feel happy and
confident. This may result in the child being able to interact and communicate
with new people that they meet and then eventually form new friendships with
them. Lev Vygotsy states ‘that children are able to perform much more better
when being guided by an adult’ (Harry
2005,pg.223). An advantage of Lev Vygotsy theory which includes the zone of
proximal development is that this theory takes into consideration that children
will always require support and help from a significant other in order to
develop a new skill in which they will eventually be able to perform on their
own.

Poverty is another factor that
can have an effect on the well- being and health of babies and young children.
If children come from a deprived area where there is a lot of poverty this may
mean that the children are not consuming healthy meals. In addition, it is more
likely that children are not consuming the recommended correct portions of
fruit and vegetable a day. If a child is not consuming the right type of food
or is not getting sufficient amount of food this will lead to the child
developing poor nutrition. This could affect the health of the child as it
could prevent them from growing strong healthy bones. Additionally, if a child
has poor nutrition this could lead to a lack of concentration levels in schools,
and therefore the child may fall behind from their peers.

The environment that a child
or baby is living in can have an effect on their health, development and well-
being. Some children may be living in an environment where they have exposure
to facilities where as some children may not be exposed to any of these facilities.
For example, if a child or baby is living in an environment where there are no
leisure centres or parks available this could negatively affect the well- being
of the child. Not having access to these facilities may mean that the child is
not being able to carry out physical activities, which could lead to the child
developing health conditions such as obesity. Additionally, a negative aspect
of not having leisure facilities or parks available may mean that children may
not go out often and this can prevent children from being able to meet new
people and form friendships with other children. If a child is not exposed to meeting
other children this can result in them developing poor social skills which
could affect them being able to form secure social groups.

There are many factors
contributing to the health and well- being of babies and young children. Every
early year provider should make sure that they provide parents with information
on the importance of children getting enough sleep. For example, early year
providers could provide leaflets or carry out workshops for parents to gain
information on the importance of sleep. It is important for parents to be aware
of the importance of sleep as children not getting the right amount of sleep
could cause children to feel tired which could affect them whilst learning.
This therefore could affect the development of a child as the child may not be
performing well in school and therefore they may not be meeting their
milestones or aims that they should be meeting for their age. Reports also show
that ‘Short night-time sleeps could possibly contribute to childhood obesity’ (Scharf, DeBoer, 2015). If a child is
obese this could result in the child not being able to fully participate in
physical education lessons in schools without getting tired. This could lead
the child into feeling withdrawn or upset that they are unable to take part in
physical education lessons the same length as their peers.  

It is important as the role
of an adult to carry out positive behaviour in front of children, For example,
if a teacher find’s litter on the floor they should throw it away in the bin
and let the children know the positive behaviour that they have carried out. It
is important to carry out positive behaviour in front of children as children
will observe behaviour they see around them and therefore will copy the
behaviour. Albert Bandura believes that children copy and imitate the behaviour
that they observe. He believes that behaviour is more likely to be copied by a
child if it is positively reinforced (Bandura,
1977). It is important as the adult to praise positive behaviour as this
will help the child to learn that positive behaviour will always be praised and
therefore they will be more likely to continue with the positive behaviour that
they are displaying. Moreover, it is the role of the adult to make sure that if
a child is carrying out negative behaviour that they are not being positively
praised this will help the child to learn to not carry out the negative
behaviour again.

It is the role of an adult
to make sure that every child has a key person. 
A key person is someone who the child will see as an important person to
them. The key person will help the child to settle down in a new setting. This
key person will build a good relationship with the child, and therefore the
child will become attached to the key person. This role of an adult links to
John Bowlby’s attachment theory. Bowlby believed that it was important for
every child to have at least one attachment in their life. These attachments
were important as they would help to the child to feel protected (Holmes, 2014). If a child has a
feeling of protection this would help the child to feel safe and comfortable to
explore the environment around them. If a child is able to explore the environment
around them they will be able to form secure relationships with people.   

Adults such as parents and
teachers have an important role in the development of a child. Every adult who
is an early year provider must make sure that they are following the Early
Year’s foundation stage (EYFS) standards that are set (Hutchin, V,2012). It is the role of the early year provider to
follow these standards as these standards will help to promote ‘school readiness’.
It is important for children to develop school readiness as this will help to
ensure that children have gained various skills and knowledge that they can
build upon as they are developing (Hutchin,
V, 2012). One of the EYFS overarching principles is that every early year
provider must follow: is that they should help children to become strong as an
individual which can be achieved through helping children to develop positive
relationships (Lindon, 2012). For
example, early year providers might help a child to develop a positive
relationship with fellow peers or other staff through supporting the child to
engage in a conversation or teaching the child to play co-operatively with
other children. If a child is able to develop positive relationships this will
enable the child to feel confident in building strong positive relationship
with other individuals that they will interact and communicate with throughout
their life. Furthermore, building good relationships will help the child to
develop socially which therefore may result in the child feeling empowered.  

There are many different definitions
of child development. Each definition of child development may not always be
the same and sometimes may be opposing.  According to (Penn, 2008, pg.38) “child development is assumed to be holistic in
the sense that physical, cognitive, emotional and social development are all
interrelated and interact with each other”. This quote shows that during the
development of a child all of their holistic needs will develop over the years
which will enable children to become more independent as children will have
developed new skills. Two factors that can have an affect on child development
are known as nature and nurture. According to (Lindon,2012) there are many theorists who are either for or
against nature and nurture factors contributing to the development of a child. Nature
refers to the genetics that a child will have inherited from their parents. On
the other hand, nurture refers to various factors within a child’s environment that
they grow up in that can have an influence in the way that a child develops.

The early years of a child’s
life are important as children develop rapidly in their early years. In this
assignment I will be identifying the role of the adult which plays a key role
in child development. Furthermore, I will be examining various factors that
contribute to the health, development and well- being of babies and young
children. Additionally, I will be identifying and appraising various theories
of child development. The area that I will be focusing on within my assignment
is physical and social development of a child during their early years.

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