TERM States goes back to colonial days when the

TERM PAPERSAVANNAH MOHRMODESTO JUNIOR COLLEGEABSTRACT    The criminal was formally organized in 1919, As time goes on, we continue to grow and evolve in how we understand and respond to crime. The police is the force that has the authority and liability to protect the community. Every police department is organized and every single individual who makes part of it has his own function and area of expertise.The Courts are the place where justice is made. The main objective of sending citizens who broke the law to a correctional facility is “to protect society from crime.Criminal behavior is the basis for the study of criminology. Understanding what criminal behavior is, and why people commit crimes, is key to furthering your career in criminology.THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATESThe Criminal Justice system has come a long way from the early days. The Criminal Justice system in the United States goes back to colonial days when the citizens were subject to the laws and rules of the British. Many times the laws and later punishment were not always fair.However, at the end of the 17th Century, William Penn began to rebuild the Criminal Justice system and helped to see these changes implemented. After the American Revolution, the U.S. Constitution was created which guaranteed freedoms and rights that were not there in colonial days. This was only the beginning to setting guidelines for crimes, punishment and procedures that need to be followed to protect the rights of the innocent.By 1823, the Texas Rangers had serious problems with raids by the Comanche, Tonkawa and Karankawa Indians. Under Mexican law, Austin was authorized to form a militia to ward off Indian raids, capture criminals and patrol against intruders. In May, while Austin was in Mexico City, his lieutenant, Moses Morrison, used this authority to assemble a company of men to protect the Texas coast from the Tonkawa and Karankawa Indians. Texas Rangers often served as unintended volunteers since government offers of payment rarely materialized. In 1835, as the movement for Texas independence was about to boil over, a council of colonial Texas representatives created a “Corps of Rangers” to protect the frontier from hostile Indians. For the first time, their pay was officially set at $1.25 a day and they were to elect their own officers. They were also required to make their own arms, mounts, and equipment. The corps was commanded by R.M. “three-legged” Williamson (so nicknamed because he had a wooden leg to support a crippled limb) and led by Captains William Arrington, Isaac Burleson and John J. Tumlinson.     Criminal law during early times was the result of a shift from tribalism, loyalty to a tribe or friends, and feudalism, a societal structure focused on owning land in exchange for labor.In England during the 2nd century BC, the first jail appeared resulting from an increased use of trial and grand jury systems. Royalty established jails to house individuals who were arrested for criminal violations. Early jailing systems allowed civilians to observe and taunt offenders. In this jailing system you were required to pay for your own necessities such as food or clothing, if they could not afford these items, they went without them.    Verifiably, the criminal equity framework has worked as an instrument of prejudice and abuse through enactment and the acts of the police, court, and remedial frameworks. For instance, amid bondage police were utilized for watches to get runaway slaves and return them to their proprietors, and in the late 1800s in the western Joined States, Chinese foreigners confronted laws confining their chances to claim land and organizations. The lynching of dark men associated with wrongdoings, especially assault of white ladies, was an across the board hone in southern states in the late nineteenth and mid twentieth hundreds of years.Such violence occurred with either the direct consent and participation of criminal justice actors, or a willingness to ignore gang violence against people of different color. There has also been a historical pattern of discriminatory treatment of minorities who are victims of crimes.    African Americans have suffered discrimination on grounds of race, initially through the system of slavery, and then through a pattern of not being included and setting them apart from other people, both informal and formal,in the shape of legislation and court decisions that have historically endorsed overt racial discrimination. From the time slavery was established in the early 17th century until 1865, slaves were considered the property of their owners or masters based on a view that they were naturally unequal and lesser of a person. They were subjected to slave codes, which prohibited the possession of any rights or freedoms enjoyed by the whites; experienced brutal and inhumane treatment beyond the authority of the law; and were exploited for their labor. Following the Civil War, amendments to the Bill of Rights prohibited slavery and granted all persons, regardless of race, a right to equal protection. COURTS AND CORRECTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES    The third component of the criminal justice system is corrections. While it implies reform and rehabilitation, corrections surround all sentenced offenders, including those who are on death row. Federal and state criminal justice systems hold “corrections” as the replacement for “penology” that many find harsh and unforgiving. In any case, the corrections component manages incarcerated convicts and those who are conditionally released, as well as those who are soley slapped with punishments that do not require imprisonment but who need supervision anyway. Corrections officers supervise inmates that are being housed and serving sentences in prison. Corrections officers can also be found in county and city jails where inmates serve sentences for misdemeanors or being detained before or during trial. The corrections network includes publicly run and privately operated institutions, along with the personnel and other stakeholders, and its administration must adhere to lawful standards. The process involves reform and rehabilitation programs to prepare qualified convicts for reentry and reintegration into society as free individuals. Corrections is an aspect of the US criminal justice system that works to punish, incapacitate, deter, or rehabilitate those who have been convicted and sentenced for a crime. There are an estimated 1.5 million individuals under some type of correctional authority in the United States. The main components of US corrections include jails, prisons, and community corrections. Jails are facilities to hold individuals who are awaiting trial and those who have been sentenced to one year or less of confinement. Prisons are facilities reserved for individuals sentenced to more than one year of incarceration. Community corrections refers to a variety of sentences that allows offenders to serve their time within the community. The most common forms of community corrections are probation and parole. Other methods of community corrections include, but are not limited to, day reporting center, electronic monitoring, and boot camps. The current correctional system punishes offenders by restricting their lives and make living on the inside uncomfortable. While people on the inside are given meals, running water, beds, climate control, physical activity and entertainment, everything that would be considered needed, much of which law abiding citizens do not have access to, incarceration is not meant to be fun and enjoyable. The convicted have to live under a strict set of rules. Tonry reported (as cited in Weisberg, 2012) that the bigger the population in prison, them more society is committed to reform.    The federal court system has three main levels: district courts (the trial court), circuit courts which are the first level of appeal, and the Supreme Court of the United States, the final level of appeal in the federal system. There are 94 district courts, 13 circuit courts, and one Supreme Court throughout the country.Courts in the federal system work differently in many ways than state courts. The primary difference for civil cases (as opposed to criminal cases) is the types of cases that can be heard in the federal system. Federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction, meaning they can only hear cases authorized by the United States Constitution or federal statutes. The federal district court is the starting point for any case arising under federal statutes, the Constitution, or treaties. This type of jurisdiction is called “original jurisdiction.” Sometimes, the jurisdiction of state courts will overlap with that of federal courts, meaning that some cases can be brought in both courts. The plaintiff has the initial choice of bringing the case in state or federal court. However, if the plaintiff chooses state court, the defendant may sometimes choose to “remove” to federal court.criminal cases may not be brought under diversity jurisdiction. States may only bring criminal prosecutions in state courts, and the federal government may only bring criminal prosecutions in federal court. Also important to note, the principle of double jeopardy – which does not allow a defendant to be tried twice for the same charge – does not apply between the federal and state government. If, for example, the state brings a murder charge and does not get a conviction, it is possible for the federal government in some cases to file charges against the defendant if the act is also illegal under federal law. The individuals in the court component work to ensure an individual’s rights are not violated and a fair trial takes place. Juries and judges play a part in sentencing individuals for crimes committed, but they must each follow guidelines established by state and federal statutes. THE CONCEPT OF CRIME AND THE MAJOR THEORIES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR    Historically, there are three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior is Psychological, sociological, biological. All infer different methods of control, but it is difficult to completely separate the three categories as it is generally accepted that all three of the factors play a role in the expression of behavior. Moreover, psychological science consists of several disciplines including biological psychology and social psychology, so psychological principles could be applied across all three domains. However, there are some general principles associated with each of these paradigms that would be associated with some specific crime control policies. This results in admittedly narrow definition for each of the categories, but it does simplify the discussion herein.In the mid 19th century the question about the causes of criminal behavior was increased, a lot of psychologists were insisting that the only reason was genetics. They even considered that a person’s inclination to criminal could be measured according to the parents mental condition, i.e. if they had some even minor mental problems theirs son/daughter was more likely to become a criminal. The scientists had their versions of solving a problem, but is it fair if the people with higher risk of committing a crime would not be allowed by the state and society to live normally and have children? As the time passed, more researches and experiments were held and modern approach to this question is that of course genetics is really important reason behind criminal behaviour, but the environment is also as important as it. This includes the family the child is born and raised in, the example parents and family can give them, the social status they have, education, etc. Nowadays the psychologists and criminalists agree that what drives a person to criminal behavior is really complex and complicated mechanism, involving a lot of factors. We can only imagine a child, who was born in a “criminal” family (mother is schizopreniac, father is gang banger and murderer) but after he got an education and a job there is nothing antisocial in his behaviors. It proves that solely genetics can’t determine one’s inclination to the criminal. In order to find the best ways to handle and prevent crime, examining  why do people commit crime is very important. Many theories have appeared and are appearing since beginning of this study seeking to find the best solutions for this problem. Those theories are continuing and will always influence forensic and criminal psychologist work. In order to find the best ways to handle and prevent crime, examining  why do people commit crime is very important. Many theories have appeared and are appearing since beginning of this study seeking to find the best solutions for this problem. Those theories are continuing and will always influence forensic and criminal psychologist work. Though these theories are eventually changed, I will try to be as accurate as possible.Three broad models of criminal behaviors are the following: psychological,  sociological and biological models. Actually, it is a bit of a challenge to completely separate them and it is generally accepted, that all of them play a role in the interpretation of behavior. Though psychological principles can be applied across all the three models, they all have some specific ones, which would help in implementing across different crime control policies.Age is a big reason of criminal behavior. Most initial offenders tend to be younger, often in their teens or early twenties. Criminal activity then decreases as they grow older. This may be a result of other societal responsibilities taking precedence, such as taking care of a family. Not all crimes fit this pattern, however. Fraud and other crimes that require more thought and planning (and often white-collar crimes) are often committed by older individuals who act less impulsive than their younger counterparts. Criminal behavior also breaks down along gender lines. Males are more likely, both historically and sociologically, to be responsible for a majority of criminal behavior. In part this may be explained by hormonal differences, with testosterone being a hormone linked to more violent and risky behavior. Certain aspects of male social behavior may also encourage this, such as the need to appear “tougher” which helps legitimize violence. There are crimes that are more commonly linked to women, such as prostitution and drug use, and in recent years the number of women committing violent crimes has been on the rise.

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