social media accounts of most people play an important role in self
presentation as well as facilitating communication among people.
Social media play a crucial role in young people’s socialization and
identity development, including gender identities. Social media is
often used to show or raise self-esteem. In this way, young people
are exposed to many gender stereotypes through social media
throughout the day. Gender stereotypes have always existed and deeply
entrenched within all cultures. Stereotypes may provide advantages or
disadvantages, but it is important to keep them in balance. The
greatest advantage of stereotypes are to help to simplify complex
life experiences by categorizing.
aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which visual
gender stereotypes can be observed in selfies on Instagram.
Additionally, the degree of gender stereotyping in selfies was
compare with gender stereotyping in magazine adverts, directly. The
hypotheses of the researchers were collected under three questions.
The researchers use 500 selfies uploaded on Instagram. The percentage
of selfies was dispersed as: 50% female and 50% male. The selfies was
selected randomly from instagram. For final hypothesis that the
researchers compared between with findings of a study on gender
depictions in magazine ads that also used Goffman’s and Kang’s gender
depiction categories and the frequencies found for selfies in the
presented study. For the measurement of this study was used content
analysis which included ten variables. The researchers indicated that
women’s selfies were more likely than the ads to reflect gender
stereotypes in four ways: feminine touch, withdrawing gaze,
imbalance, and loss of control. The results of the first research
question shows that statistically significant gender differences with
small to medium effect sizes were found in selfies for all of
Goffman’s and Kang’s categories, however the sitting posture is not
included this results. Feminine touch and imbalance were found the
biggest gender effects. The results of the second research question
shows that statistically significantly more selfies produced by
females tend to take pictures with the kissing pout and faceless
portrayal, meanwhile males’ selfies tend to more often displayed
muscle presentation. The kissing pout and muscle presentation were
found for the biggest gender differences. The results of the final
research question demonstrated that the biggest differences between
selfies and magazine adverts appeared for the categories imbalance
and loss of control.
(1979) has shown that the characters in the ads overlap with real
life in terms of gender roles. According to Goffman, Advertising
characters that match each other in real life also reinforce gender
roles. The researchers used the Goffman’s five categories about
conceptual framework of gender display in media. In my opinion, this
categories is not up-to-date because we know that the technology of
1979 is not the same as the technology of this time. It is not right
to make a comparison between the two. At the same time, many things
are very quickly forgotten, as many things are very quickly trending,
today. In this study, the researchers prefered add “duck face”,
because this is popular in recent time.
to Bandura’s Social Learning Theory, people observer the others, and
then they imitiate their behaviors. People generally tend to imitate
somebody who are similar to self. In this reason, they are tend to
imitate behavior modeled by people who have same gender. If we
observe that behavior is rewarded or punished, our tendency to
imitate this behavior is affected. If a people imitates a model’s
behavior in instagram and the results are rewarding, he/she can
continue performing the behavior. Additionally, a person learns by
observing the results of others behavior, again in instagram, if a
pose gain like, a person continue sit pose. The researchers may
consider this view.
of methodological weaknesses or strengths
researchers selected the picture in instagram randomly. It’s my
understanding that instagram users do not know that their photos are
used for a study. I believe that users should be informed about the
situation, even if the photos are open to everyone.
researchers said that they used international hashtags, although they
interested in english hashtags. For example, some people can prefer
their own language e.g. #ben in turkish etc. Additionally, some
countries give a different name for daily using. For instance, selfie
meaning that “özçekim”. Some people can use this type of
hashtags. The researchers do not reach all type of photos and they
can not generalize their results. Additionally, they may investigate
this study in other countries for cultural differences.
the researchers can add some things. First of all, the categories
used can be extended because people forget some trends over time.
For example, in recent time, new trend is body positive movement. We
can see more normal and non-ideal body in instagram. Secondly, the
researchers used two sex in this study, they can extend gender types.
Thirdly, they hypothesis included more female tendencies, they can
add more male tendencies.
study very important results for marketing and advertising. It is an
advantage to reach people who are in their sales targets.
researches will guide the development of educational systems that
will help young people build self esteem. The percentage of aged
13-17 (teens) that use instagram daily is 52%. Furthurmore, 8 percent
of the existing accounts consist of “fake accounts”.
Especially in social media applications like Instagram, individuals
are now clearly revealing their identities or creating new identities
by easily here. Social media, photo sharing applications, especially
instagram and facebook, give people the opportunity to look like they
want. It is very important that people accept themselves as they are.
If they can not, they can face problems both cognitively and
physically. Preventing and helping them is the duty of mental health