IntroductionConcert the air in the form of sound waves,

IntroductionConcert halls from around the world come in a vast variety of shapes and sizes with several principle architectural ideas utilised. The varying forms range from the ‘shoebox’ style of hall, to (something) Concert halls in the 18th and 19th century were designed specifically for classical orchestra and opera concerts, a contrast to more recent designs around the 19th and 20th century, whereby the halls were designed with a much wider range of events in mind such as (ROCK AND SHIT)The art of designing a suitable concert hall comes down to a precise art of acoustical engineering, this process is key to creating a suitable auditorium  for performances of all varieties, musical performances such as classical concerts and opera to live theatre performances on stage, the various elements of acoustical design needs to be applied In order to ensure speech clarity, sound absorption and prevention of reflections along with spaciousness and reverberation.Acoustic parameters Background noise Due to the intimate nature of a performance within a concert hall, one of the least desirable issues to occur, is any intruding noise from the outside world. Sound may enter the venue in a number of different ways, one such way is defined as airborne noise, this is the vibrations of particles through the air in the form of sound waves, traveling at 343 m/s. In order to prevent this sound entering the auditorium, the building will require precise  Reverberation timeThe reverberation time in a concert hall is one of the most important aspects of what defines a good concert hall, within such a large space such as a hall, the reverberation time will be very noticeable, due to all of the hard surfaces and the vast amount of space, without appropriate acoustic treatment, the sounds of the orchestra will become lost, with each note played reverberating around the room, it will quickly become an inaudible mess. A room with reflective sound is often described as being ‘live’ whilst a room of which has lots of sound absorption (such as a bedroom or living room with absorbing materials such as furniture) will be described as ‘dead’.In a live room, it will take longer for the sound to die away, In a very absorbent room, in a dead room, the sound will die away quickly. The time for reverberation to completely die away will also depend upon how loud the sound was to begin with, and will also depend upon the acuity of the hearing of the observer. In order to provide a reproducible parameter, a standard reverberation time has been defined as the time for the sound to die away to a level 60 decibels below its original level..  (Paraphrase)For a symphony orchestra, the architecture of the concert hall needs to do its work to bring fullness of the sound even to the quietest passages, and be heard all the way to last person in the audience.Reflector: Sound reflects off a hard wall like a snooker ball bouncing off the cushion. Flat, large hard surfaces are a common surface in concert hallsAbsorber. If a surface is soft the sound is absorbed. Absorption is usually avoided in concert halls because it removes valuable sound energy. The audience and seating are the most absorbing areas in most halls.Diffuser. A rough surface, a diffuser, disperses sound in all directions. Diffusers have many uses.  For example they can remove detrimental echoes caused by surfaces such as the rear wall behind the audience.Berliner Philharmonie – Case studyThe Berlin Philharmonie building opened in October of 1963, this concert hall, widely acclaimed for its architecture and acoustics lies just west of the former berlin wall, it became part of the new urban centre just after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Its unusual design, a  tent-like shape and very distinctive bright yellow colour makes it one of the city’s landmarks and tourist attractions. Despite the initial skepticism over the choice of design, it has now become a benchmark, of which concert halls across the world are compared to.  For the first time in the history of architecture, the design of a concert hall had to fulfill not only construction guidelines related in this case to the location behind the façade of a Gymnasium from the 19th century Gründerzeit but also precisely formulated acoustic demands, specifically a two-second reverberation  (Refernce) Symphony Hall – Birmingham, United KingdomRegarded as one of the best concert halls in the UK, Symphony hall opened in 1991, its design is based on Wiener Musikverein, a famous concert hall in Austria

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