Chapter two divisions as follows; · Studies related to

Chapter
2

Review
of Related Literature

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2.1          
Introduction

            The review of literature described
what kind of information the researcher can get from the different type of
sources like journal, article and book chapter. These sources will help to
understand the important information about research. The finding of previous
research can make fill the gap of research.

The
researcher search using Key words likes second language Tamil, national peace,
teaching second language and teaching material. The Review of Related
Literature pertaining to the present study has been classified mainly in two
divisions as follows;

 

·      
 Studies related to Tamil as a second language,
Sri Lanka

·      
 Studies related to developing teaching modules
to teach Tamil

            The
Review of Related Literature comprise with the books, journal, research
abstracts and articles.

2.1.1 Studies related to Tamil as a second
language, Sri Lanka

A multilingualism impact is
the most familiar issue of the world. Language is the one of most important
communication method to express our feelings, thoughts, and problems to among
us. Without understanding the great power of communication, people are against
each other to divide to countries for peace by peace as language, ethnically
and religiously. People don’t like to respect other’s culture. Therefore, we
need to create a peacefully and comfortable environment to our children who can
grow to learn the complexities of language. The children start to learn
communication skills in their early life and make process to foundation for
their communication abilities for the future. Strong language skills are very
useful because it will develop the ability of communication in their whole
life.

In 1948, Sri Lanka got independent from
British but unfortunately within 6 – 8 years who destroyed by ethnic conflict.
Therefore Government had a big responsibility to save the country from civil
war again. Perera, S (2010) the article of “Reflections on issues
of language in Sri Lanka: Power, exclusion and inclusion” describe the lack of Tamil  language competency  of government officers in Sri Lanka the
people who live  in north and eastern province
face lot of difficulties. According to an explanation the   government workers in that area must
knowledge of Tamil .They need to listen understand and write in Tamil, if not
the ordinary people will suffer and it will be dangerous. The Government issued many circulars within 2002 -2010 regarding second language competency .However
it’s not work properly and this details
proof.  The record of 2005 only
8.32 % government officers could speak Tamil. But Tamil speaking population is
26% however, it’s not work the prevailing situation remains quite bleak at the
ground level.

To
introduce a language to adults is very difficult than children. Educational
intelligent advice in language teaching needed to start from school. In 2016, De
Silva, G.H.R.T. conducted a research title “Language as a Means of Peace
building: A Case for School Curriculum in Sri Lanka” .In this study the
researcher gave suggestions that the government need to establish new policy
for teacher recruitment. He suggested that the government need to give more
opportunities for native language speaking candidates and should be held
training programme should be held for them. More importance should be given to prepare
teachers for 21 century in teaching second language. Moreover, he suggested as
curriculum policy, curriculum lesson of Tamil and Sinhala text book must be
similar and related to daily life. Should be given  more attention for oral communication and
lesson like love and kindness to animal, good attitude, respect elders and
other religious and cultural values can be use for improve the peace and
harmony. Language conflict is a one of main reason of Civil war in Sri Lanka. In the article published by IRIN (humanitarian news
and analysis, 2011)  recorded the late
justice minister in Sri Lanka Mr. Rajapakshe.W  , explained
generality of language is the one of biggest challenge of Sri Lanka’s peace and
harmony .The ethnic problem started from unpleasant incident from history,
regarding the language policy. The people who live in northern and eastern
province cannot speak in Sinhala and nearly 15 000 soldiers work in these areas
cannot speak Tamil. Still Sri Lanka education in not participate as perfect
peace maker. Education system also divided by medium of language and it makes
tool for children to divide as Sinhalese and Tamil. In his speech he announced
to establish the “lesson Learnt and reconciliation commission (LLRC) to create
the great awareness of linguistic and cultural affinities.

As a result of
misunderstanding of ethnic and religious diversity make civil war prevail in
the country. The article of Chandran.N, recorded that 40,000
people were killed in the 26 year’s civil war. Sri Lanka is a developing
country and there are many challenges have to resolve by the government. The
government spends large amount of money annually for defence. The Asian economic
university described in 2007 that the government borrowed $181,449 worth of
defence loans from International financial market, virtually double the amount
use in the previous year, in 2008, the Sinhalese government designated $ 1.2
billion for defence, a 20% increase from the previous year”. Therefore the
government introduce some policies for re-establish for peace. The report of
education ministry title “National Policy on
Social Cohesion and Peace Education”, (2008) the document is the final outcome of several studies that had been
conducted and insightful reports that had been prepared on different aspects of
Social Cohesion and Peace Education. The important hints of this policy are
national cohesion, confirm the social justice and make the true
partnership of national –building in the country. According to this policy,
government is expected to teach Sinhala and Tamil language among the both
nationalities. It starts from primary and junior secondary grades. Introducing
second national language in school syllabus government aimed the bilingual
ability cultural understand will be develop. Smith, A. (2010) described that the situation of
violent conflict education should be use as safety character for peace
building, by the providing facility and programme to understand the value of
peace for children, it helps to the underling the cause of ethnic conflict. Additionally
the study identify he described that mother tongue is the most essential medium
for learning national, official and international languages.

            Davis, C.K. (2011) explains that the
national education system has a mismatch with national peace, because,
government has not taken any action to stop student from associating peace to
language, ethnic and religion. As a result of this children grow up with   interethnic enmity and mistrust. Finally this
misunderstanding will increases among the Tamils and Sinhalese. The policies
and education system don’t have real combination to earn the national goal. The
national education system is the fastest unit to promote national peace. School
population is the future generation of Sri Lanka. Therefore government has the
responsibility to participate honestly and make peace policies to re-establish
national harmony in the country. The research by Medawattegedara, V., Mohamed Abdullah, M.,
Premarathna, A., Yogaraja, S.J. (2016) on
education policies are not able to increase peace among the bilingual
population in the country. The researchers also recorded that teaching of Tamil
and Sinhala is almost neglected by authorities. The second language teachers
are unqualified, no proper training and systematic evaluation is being followed
by teachers teaching Tamil.    

Aturupane,H. (2011) in the
report on the Promotion of Social
Cohesion through Education in Sri Lanka, the report discovered that, in moving
towards a culture of peace, learning of the second national language
(Sinhala/Tamil) and learning English are vitally important. While in the past,
there was a reluctance to learn the second national language (Sinhala/Tamil)
this does not seem to be the case anymore, particularly with policy makers
deciding that all public servants need to prove competency in both national
languages. It also becomes more difficult to marginalize or isolate children
speaking different languages and from different cultural backgrounds if their
languages and histories are part of the formal education process. Bilingual
education too can help diverse ethnic and religious groups to gain knowledge
and participate fully as citizens in the community in which they live.

2.1.2
Studies related to developing teaching modules to teach Tamil

S.Athirathan.(2014) in the research, on Teaching of Second National Language (2NL) in Sri
Lanka: Success and Failure in achieving objectives of the Second National
Language conducted an analysis on  68 % of teachers, the state about unsuitable
activities incorporated in the text books. Teachers (68%) and
students (62%) are unable to differentiate between first language and Second National Language textbooks and teachers do not
use (78%) modern teaching learning strategies and do not create conducive
teaching – learning environment in and outside the classroom. The majority of
the Students (77%) and teachers (60%) do not consider Second National Language (Tamil) as an
important subject in the curriculum. 68% of the students cannot write
Tamil alphabet accurately as well as 76% of the students do not have the
ability to communicate in Tamil language.

According to this
finding the nearest solution for this matter is needed to develop suitable
teaching material for Second language Tamil teachers to teach Tamil in the
present classroom. This material can connect with the present textbook and the
level of a teacher’s knowledge will be sufficient for use. Teaching- learning
material like DVD, modules by using audio visual methods would be very useful
for teachers because the module explains a way of teaching and by the DVD the students
would understand the different context.

Furthermore the S.Athirathan explains that the Second National Language Policy also does not
really cooperate with National development of Sri Lanka. The Policy of teaching second
national language formulated by the National Education Commission and second
national language was introduced in all Government schools. However teaching
and learning is not prevailing in all schools as expected. It is hindering the
achievement of national objectives of teaching second national
language. 51% of non-native Second
National Language teachers’ educational qualifications are nil.
Majority of Second National
Language teachers (72%) use lecture method and many of them do
not use teaching aids/materials in the classroom. Teachers do not like to
enhance competencies in listening and speaking. Curriculum, the syllabus and
Teachers’ guides are developed by the National Institute of Education.
Textbooks are produced and distributed to students by the Educational
Publication department of the Ministry of Education. The Curriculum is very difficult for
students and therefore teacher recruitment
and deployment, and professional development trainings are neglected without
proper policies.

The study of Perera, M. (2011) titled of
Building bridges: National integration through the teaching of the Second
National Language investigated five issues about teaching Tamil as a second
language (second national language). The study explains that the knowledge of
trainee teachers in their second national language is very low. Some teachers
start to learn language at this level. The methodology and resources are very
difficult to be used in the teaching of second national language the study
included the effectiveness training programme. There were no specific
qualifications required for teachers who taught second national language and
often the teachers who taught in schools were not specially trained in language
teaching. Furthermore, their own second national language competency has not
often been very high. Text books are also not attractive for students and they
cannot obtain admitted interests. The language in  the Sinhala text book for Tamil students was
considered to be particularly difficult and moreover the Tamil books for
Sinhala students consisted of just two volumes or ‘steps’ to cover four grades
(Grades 6 to 9). Although the textbooks were readily available, there were still
no teacher guides or recourses book accompany them.

The research of Gamage,V.(2013) explains about inadequate qualified teacher cadre for second  language teaching.
The under qualified teachers, teach Tamil without getting proper
training. The
research conducted by Davis (1997) recorded that the methods of teaching should
be selected according to criteria of how teaching should be carried out, how
students should learn, and what are the optimum conditions for teaching. There
are various discussions on the relativity of knowledge provided by teachers to
the students and how students are grasping the knowledge of themselves as well
as the teaching methods. The teachers have minimum access to providing
knowledge of suitable teaching methods. There are recent facts on teacher
centred and student centred teaching methods on varying physiological expects  most teachers do not have access to them.

Genesee, F. (1994) in the study titled Teaching Content
through a Second Language suggested that the second language teacher need to
think and prepare the materials they will use for instruction. They learn
through a second language and must add special criteria for selecting materials
such as visuals, print and non-print media. However, commercially produced
materials target native speakers .It can be an advantage and disadvantage.
Teachers must decide whether to adapt existing materials or develop their own.
The developed of information technology in all curriculums studies, therefore
teacher need to try and use technology for their teaching.

Lakshmi, S. Peer, J. (2009) carried out the multimodal
features of technology which provides a rich learning experience for the
students in the  language lessons
especially in the second language classes where the students need effective
teaching materials to understand the lessons/language. Language is one that
tells about our experiences about the world around us and within us. Teaching
module is important teaching material. Chung-Chi Lin and Wei-Lung Wang, (2015)
conducted an analysis on the value of teaching material. The current design of
teaching plans and activities in textbooks has some difficulties to use.  Using the teaching modules teachers can go
for more activities and it is very useful for the students who work
brilliantly. The Modules can provide increased student’s interest in learning
and their understanding of the relevant concepts and principles, by guiding
them to explore the theories. Further the study of Sam Mohan Lal. (2003) focuses
on Language as an art and it need more artistically material. The second
language teaching is much more complicated and needs more artistic trained hands
as the material producers and produce language instructors. Unless there is one
to one correspondence and coordination between the material producer,
instructional material, teaching methodology coupled with the simulations
motivation of the language students and their strategies, the language teaching
techniques and materials can never achieve the goal of fulfilling the task of
the teacher. Agreeing with this study the Ravindran (2002) explained the
second language teachers of Singapore previously use traditional teaching
methods and it’s not use to increase the quantity of Tamil known population.
Student expects more advanced methods. Using the module teachers can easily
connect text book with technology.

Sri Lankan present president (S.Maithripala
2016) request from the Tamil experts in the Tamil language day award ceremony
speech to make arrangements to provide and enhance the second language
abilities among student.

The researcher finds less articles and
research paper regarding this topic since Sri Lanka is going through post war
and the Government and many other agencies are working in maintaining peace and
reconciliation in Sri Lanka among various ethnic groups. Therefore, the
Government of Sri Lanka asked its citizen to maintain peace and harmony by
respecting each other’s language. Hence, they also encourage researchers to
develop tools and come up with different innovative method to help students
learn their second language in an effective manner .Therefore the researcher is
trying to fill this gap through this research.

From the above literature the researcher
described the value of learning of second language Tamil especially in
maintaining peace and harmony in the country. However, it was also found that
Tamil speaking population has not increased as per the explanation of the
Government. (Perera.S, De silva, Rajapaksha.W,Smith.A,Chandran.N.,
Medawattegedara, V., Mohamed
Abdullah, M., Premarathna, A., Yogaraja, S.J ).It also found that Poor teaching
method lead to poor achievement among the student.

The researcher also found that the teaching materials are very important to help
students improve their attitude and achievement in Tamil but there is no
suitable teaching material developed to help teachers improve for second
language teachers in Sri Lanka. (Perera .M,Gamage.V, Genesee. F,Lakshmi, S. Peer.J, Sam Mohan Lal). Therefore,
the researcher is trying to help teachers improve their teaching and make their
work much easier by developing a set of modules to teach second language Tamil.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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