Chapter- to meet their needs without being threatened. Human

  Chapter- 1Introduction1.1      BackgroundSustainability is defined as the avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain the ecological balance. The principal of sustainability is to ensure that all existing resources will be maintained for future generations. Living sustainability is about living within the natural resources and environment where it does not harm our lifestyle society as well as culture. Sustainability is also define as the requirement of the different   kind of generation to manage the resources base such that the average quality of life. Ability to continue the defined behavior indefinitely is known as the Sustainability.Environmental sustainability is the rates of renewable resources harvest, pollution creation, and non-renewable resource depletion that can be continued indefinitely (Herman Daly). If they cannot be continued indefinitely they are not sustainable. In other words, it can be also define as the responsible interaction with the environment to avoid depletion or degradation of natural resources and allow for long term environmental quality. The practice of environmental sustainability helps today’s population who are in need and also helps the future generation to meet their needs without being threatened. Human action can exhaust natural resources and without the application of environmental sustainability methods and long term viability can be compromised.Australia is ranked in the eighth place of unsustainable country. Every Australian person requires about seven hectares to live their current lifestyle (WWF spokesperson Dermot O’ Germon). Australia continues to rank very poorly in terms of our impact on the planet. There are lots of environmental issues that are affecting the environment of Australia. There are many human activities including the use of natural resources have a direct impact on the Australian Environment. According to global report Australia has taken the title of biggest environmental impact on the planet into the health of world ecosystem and species. Climate change and also plant and animals are the agents of the radical change that are tearing through Australia’s environment. Climate change is now the major talking point in Australia in the last two decades. Australia ranks within the top 10 countries globally with respect to greenhouse gases emissions. In 2013 CSIRO released a report stating that Australia is becoming hotter and that will experience more heat and longer fire seasons because of climate change.1.2      Research AimThis report uses different research methodology. This report has used different web sites, journal articles and academic book. The objective of this research and report is to make clear and identify the situation of Australia caused by climate change. This report even provides some of the recommendation that hope so will bring some advantage in controlling the climate change. 1.3      Research Methodology 1.4      Limitations of the Report Chapter- 2Issues on Climate Change2.1   MiningMining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposits. Mining operations usually create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Hence, most of the world’s nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact in work safety measure has been a concern as well, and modern practices have significantly improved safety in mines.Levels of metal recycling are generally low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products. Due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves. 2.2   EcosystemsAn ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. Ecosystem change due the human activities has brought drastic change to climate.According to (Williams, 2003) ecosystem of a country is more responsible for the migration of aquatic and terrestrial life from areas that have become too warm, and towards areas that previously were too cool. In many places, climate change is likely to lead to invasion by new species and extinctions of some existing species that will have nowhere to migrate. Increasing climate stresses ecosystems through temperature rises, water shortages, increased fire threats, drought, weed and pest invasions, intense storm damage and salt invasion, just to name a few 2.3   BushfiresBush fires are caused due to the high temperature and change in climate.  According to Clarke (2003) the number of extreme fire risk days has grown over the past four decades, particularly in southeast Australia and away from the coast.  Future hotter and drier conditions, especially in southern Australia, are likely to cause further increases in the number of high fire-risk days and in the length of the fire season. According to the Author, CO2 fertilization may lead to increased foliage cover and hence increased fuel loads in warm arid environments such as parts of southern Australia. A study of southeast Australia has projected that the number of fire danger days rated at ‘very high’ and above could double by 2050, under high emission climate scenarios. Whether or not this leads to more, or worse, fires, and hence to changes in ecosystems, agriculture and human settlements, will depend on how this risk is managed. According to The Weekend Australian (2018) there was unexpected bushfire in Royal National Park South Sydney; due to the rise in temperature. 2.4   Greenhouse gasesAustralia is that where greenhouse gases emission is in large numbers compared to rest of the world. Most of the climate change that has occurred throughout Australia is due to the greenhouse emission. According to WWF(2018) around 2015 the warmth of temperature had a rise by 1°C. It means that if the global warming keeps on continuing then temperature will be between 3°C and 4°C. Further to that, it will lead to devastating impact to thing we are close to. 2.5   Coral ReefsCoral reefs are important factors for maintaining a balance between ecosystem goods and services. Furthermore coral reefs have been declining due to human activities. According to Hughes,Baird,Bellwood,Card,Connolly,Folke,Grosberge,Guldberg,Jackson,Kleypas,Lough,Marshall,Nystro,Palumbi,Pandolfi,Rosen,Roughgarden (2003) the declining of coral reefs has been in a fast pace where 30 per cent is already damaged, close to 60 per cent will completely vanish by 2030. According to the authors, coral reef refers to marine; the habitant to various marine life which has already been damaged and still being damaged. 2.6   DeforestationAustralia has good number of forest resources but that has been reducing because of deforestation done by developing manufacturing companies. Companies for establishment have cut down trees and that cause rise in carbon dioxide with reducing of oxygen level. Therefore, rise in carbon dioxide has caused a lot of problems in environment as well as health.     Chapter- 3Impact of Climate change3.1      HealthAccording to Clarke (2003) Heat waves are among the highest-impact climate events in terms of human health in Australia. In very hot conditions, people can suffer from heat stress, especially vulnerable individuals such as the sick and elderly. During the heat wave of early 2009 in Victoria, there were 374 more deaths than average for the time of year. Warmer temperatures in future will lead to increased occurrences of heat waves without further adaptation; extremely hot episodes are expected to have the greatest impact on mortality in the hotter north, while in cooler southern Australia there is likely to be an offsetting reduction in the number of cold-season deaths.Warmer temperatures may lead to an increase in diseases spread via water and food such as gastroenteritis. Over the next few decades, Australia is expected to remain malaria-free. However, other vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever, Barmah Forest Virus and Ross River Virus may expand their range, depending on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors related to hygiene, travel frequency and destinations, in addition to climate scenarios. Extreme events also have psychological impacts. Drought is known to cause depression and stress amongst farmers and pastoralists, and this impact may increase over southern Australia as a result of climate change.                                                                                                                                                                          3.2      InfrastructureAccording to (Williams, 2003) Climate change can have impacts on infrastructure such as electricity and transport networks. Electricity demand rises sharply during heat waves because of increased air conditioning. To avoid extensive blackouts there has been investment in generation and network capacity that is only used for a short time. In New South Wales, capacity needed for fewer than 40 hours a year (less than 1% of time) accounts for around 25% of retail electricity bills. In the 2009 heat wave in Melbourne, many rail services were cancelled because rails buckled and air conditioning failed. Coastal inundation and erosion due to sea-level rise, particularly when accompanied by extreme weather events, pose risks to infrastructure.Around 30,000 km of roads across Australia are at risk from a 1.1 meters sea-level rise, with housing and infrastructure at risk valued at more than $226 billion. 3.3      AgricultureClimate change has caused a greater risk to the agriculture in Australia. In Australia we can find a lot of farmers doing agriculture business. According to Bureau of Metrology Australia Australian farmers are facing a risk from climate change in at least some related condition. It means that Australian farmers are to a greater risk of operating in riskiest environment in world.Chapter- 4Responsible For climate changeThere are many factors that are responsible for the climate change throughout the world. The evolution of mankind to world has brought different new things which have both advantage and disadvantage. According to Environmental Defense Fund (EDF, 2018) among different nations with numbers of renowned scientist have overwhelming amount of evidence which clearly points to a conclusion: HUMAN are the main cause for climate change. It means with no doubt HUMANS’ are the responsible person for the climate change. The current warming climate is greater than 95 per cent which are the result of human activity, to which it is proceeding at unprecedented rate (NASA, Global Climate Change, 2018). It means that human activities of deploying the climate change has been growing day to day and it needs be STOPED.Human’s activities have taken a greater step in regards to climate change and they are the responsible persons for climate change. Human have developed and are still on continuous development of activities like mining, gas emission, infrastructures, population and more.  Further to the context of human activities has brought drastic change to environment; it’s due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to WWF (2018) harmful chemical of greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are extremely contained in the air. What WWF states due to greenhouse gases; heat from the sun is trapped and that leads to surface warmness of planet and ocean.Global warming is caused by human activities. Burning Fossil Fuel and deforestation has caused a climate change; with the release of carbon dioxide into the air. According to WWF (2018) Australia is one of the biggest procedures of CO2 with world as rest. It means that pollution level of CO2 is four times the world average pollution.CO2 is one of the chemical that crates threat to the world and it has even been a threat to Australia as it has increased the temperature of the country unexpectedly.Expect from human activities rules and regulations implemented by government even leads to the climate change of a country. Chapter- 5Measures for PreventionClimate change is temporary and it can be prevented from being worse and permanent. A stable and healthy climate results to better living condition and even provides better condition for survival. The process for survival depends upon the natural environment for delivering food, air and water. According to WWF (climate change, 2018) Australian government has taken necessary steps towards prevention of climate change. It means that Australia is after:·         Reducing global warming by 1.5 degree Celsius.(1.5, above pre-industrial levels by end of century)·         Achieving net-zero by 2050 of carbon pollution·         Achieving 100 per cent renewal energy by 2050.·         Achieving 100 per cent renewable electricity before 2035.The conversation (2018) states Australia will have net zero greenhouse gas emission by 2050; only if they follow or wisely use global carbon budget. It means that government has put the budget on for the global carbon of greenhouse gas emission of 10.1 billion tons carbon dioxide. If the government keeps on emitting than within next 13 years from now there will not be any greenhouse gas emission.For Australia rather than controlling other factors it must control greenhouse gas emission as Australia is one in world with most of the greenhouse gas emission. The Emission Reduction Fund from the government is supporting business, communities and landmarks to take necessary action on reducing greenhouse gas emission (Australian Government Department of the Environment , 2018).Apart from controlling greenhouse emission Australian even can control all the following   to deduce climate change:·         Transportation reduction even reduces the greenhouse gas emission as transportation is one major factor that leads to the rise in gas emission.·         Government should reduce the incoming of foreigners.·         Consume less and probably go vegetarian.·         Educate originations about the sustainability cause and effects.·         Reduce the use of electricity plugins.·         Even reduce population.   Chapter- 6Conclusion and RecommendationForm the above report we can conclude that Sustainability is defined as the avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain the ecological balance. Australia is one of those countries in world which has experienced a lot of climate change. In Australia the amount of greenhouse gas emission is in large number compared to rest of the world. The greenhouse gas emission produces a lot harmful chemical which has created a lot problem to the environment and health. Furthermore, Australia has been facing bushfire all over but South Australia is one with regular bushfire.Australian government has taken better steps for controlling climate change. The Emission Reducing Fund has been supporting the country to control climate change; 2050 will be net zero carbon dioxide pollution. The climate change has caused a lot problem to health and agriculture. In context to, climate change it is only temporary but if Australian government does not think about this problem, climate change is going to be permanent and it will be hard to reduce.WWF has taken necessary steps in controlling the climate change and it needs to follow by every country. Here in Australia government has already put on budget for controlling carbon dioxide. If government keeps on emitting or reducing greenhouse gas chemical then it will not be far for Australia getting zero reduction within 13 years from now. 

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