BackgroundMalaria rates in children and infants (Kaushik et al.

BackgroundMalaria is a detrimental disease which are reported in over 100 countries, 10,000 international visitors are reported to have fallen ill after visiting areas where the transmission of malaria is high. Malaria is caused from the parasite, Plasmodium. The number of malaria cases are increased when travellers do not take precautionary measures. Anopheles mosquitoes or even infected mosquitoes are causes of Malaria, with the non-immune being at susceptto the disease (WHO, 2010). In 2012, 207 million malaria cases of Malaria were reported across the globe. Malaria symptoms are apparent 10-15 days once the mosquito has bitten into the body, the side effects such as fever, illnesses, chills. The symptoms can lead from mild to serve if untreated in 24 hours (WHO, 2017). The total population of Malaria in India consists of  77% of the south-east population (Kumar, et al. 2001).  Malaria is more infectious to young children who travel to the malaria infected countries (WHO, 2012), malaria in 2016 resulted in 440, 000 deaths and 216 million cases, 70% of the cases were from under 5 years of age (UNICEF, 2017).The World Malaria report in 2009, reported 1.5 million caseof Malaria in India, it is stated as being 15% of the burden in the urban communities. Plasmodium vivax is identified as the leading cause for the mortality rates in children and infants (Kaushik et al. 2012). Malaria in India is known to take a life of a child every 30 seconds (Thukral & Thukral, 2001) When malaria is presented in children complications arise to the respiratory system, which can lead to possible seizures and the infection is tested from the thick blood Even when the child is immune, side-effects such as jaundice and anemia is still resulted from the illness. (Stauffer & Fischer, 2003).The symptoms of malaria are associated with having headaches, fevers and illnesses. Malaria symptoms can be mild but if the disease is not apparent early enough the consequences can are fatal and can lead to death. Furthermore, children suffer extremely serious conditions when malaria is present, with the possibilities of leading to partial immunity in their body systems (WHO, 2017). The following report will discuss how malaria contributes to the global world and India. The report will collect the data and discuss the data of the population in India and worldwide, the data will be interpreted and analyzed. The report will conclude by evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the evident data. The data will be analysedranging from the period of 2006-2016.  Demography across the globe India contributes to 1.3 billion of the world’s population with the life expectancy at birth 67 years for males and 70 years for females (WHO, 2018). The life expectancy in India is 68.35 years (2017), The morality rate of under-5 years is 42.2 per 1000 lives with the probability of 6 per 1,000 children dying between 5-14 years of age India consists of 67% of the rural community (World Bank, 2017)..             Figure 1:  Population Pyramid- IndiaSource: Epidemiology of Malaria across the globe. In 2015 438,000 deaths were reported from malaria worldwide, with 88% of Africa suffering from the disease and the second most infected country being South-East Asia consisting of 10% malaria infected country and 2% of the disease in the Eastern Mediterranean (WHO, 2015). Malaria numbers globally in 2015 accounted for of 212 million cases. Between 235, 000 and 639,000 of the worlds population died globally, with Africa contributing to the highest percentage of deaths reporting in 90% of deaths, 7% in South East regions and 2% in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO, 2016).A significant reduction of malaria across the globe was determined between 2010 and 2015, with numbers falling to 21% and death reduction of malaria related cases dropped to 29% (WHO, 2016). In 2016, 5.6 million deaths were reported from children below 5 years of age, which could have been avoided by using preventative measures. 1,700 cases of malaria are reported in the US alone each year from immigrants travelling to the malaria transmitted countries (Centers for disease control and prevention, 2017). The likelihood of children dying under the 5 years of age was 15 times greater in Africa than other countries (WHO, 2017).Malaria under the 5 years of age has overall reported to 20% of death rates.            This graph shows the population of Malaria death between 2000 and 2015.Figure 2: Population of Malaria deaths from Malaria transmitted countries.Source: Our World in Data (2016)  Epidemiology of Malaria in India Malaria cases in India are reported to 80% of the Indian population. The rate of malaria has significantly reduced from 2 million to 882, 000, which has been sported from prevention programmes in India (WHO, 2015). 60% of the states in India account for Malaria cases, some of the more endemic areas of India which present this disease are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Tripura. The main prevention technique used to prevent the mosquito disease is Indoor Residual Spraying (World Health Report, 2009). In 2006, 90% of malaria cases were outside of Africa, with 30% reported in India and 15% reported with P. falciparum cases. In India 10.6 million cases of Malaria were reported. (World Health Organization, 2008) Figure 3: Area of malaria transmission in India Source: Centers for Disease Control and prevention


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