Abstract: shortage of supply and disappoint customer’s expectations. Emerging

Abstract: Technologies that will be developed or currently being
developed is known as emerging technology. They include educational,
information, biotechnology up to artificial intelligence. Operation management is
set of activities that transform inputs to outputs in the form of goods and
services that can help add value to the organization. Examples of
inputs would be labors, equipment or materials and examples of outputs would be
goods and services. Two main terms of operation management are logistics and
supply chain management. Emerging technologies in operation management can help
and organization to improve productivity and quality, reduce cost and improve
customer satisfaction. 1.0 Introduction       Operational management (OM) is mainly
about organizing, supervising in the production field, manufacturing, and
provision of services and planning. Limited resources should be used to ensure
business operations are efficient and effective to meet customer’s demand. Main
goal of OM would be to support and fulfill shortage of goals using least
resources without sacrificing efficiency or quality. There are 4 key areas on
developing operations practices, they are, goods and services, process
management, supply chain and inventory and quality control. Effective OM can
help to reduce cost, increase revenue and also improve customer satisfaction. Operation
management would be explained precisely using two terms, they are, supply chain
management and logistics. Supply chain management means meeting client demand
would be critical when understanding global trends whereas logistics simply
means the use of resources and cost have become very important because shortage
of supply and disappoint customer’s expectations.  

      Emerging technologies are technologies
that already currently in the process of being developed or will be developed
in future. They can be explained as radical novelty, fast growth, coherence,
prominent impact and uncertainty 1.
The technology will be advanced in all different systems to achieve targets or
goals. Hence, emerging technology in operational management is an alternative
way to enhance the process control of system with systematical operational
management. 2.0 Methodology on
How Emerging Technologies Were Conducted 

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      Two industries
which are food and automotive sectors in the Europe were chosen as case study
to study how manufacturing or engineering apps (eApps) can help to improve
their operations. Detailed business process analysis was conducted in order to
identify critical operation through the use of eApps. Interviews, workshops and
deep analysis in the shop floor took place, and as for interviews, they were
conducted with relevant representatives from specific areas of roles, this
interview’s objective was to gather different opinions on current practices.
Besides that, business model by Osterwalder was used to map important blocks
that influence the eApps. A set of questionnaire was also created in order to
guide them in selecting the suitable model 2.       The
main two methods; to enable predication and explanation of behavior and to be
useful in theoretical advance (in the social sciences). These methods been
tested to private and public interest in promoting metal additive manufacturing
in aviation. Methods such as ground theory-building were used. 37 interviews
and 80 hours of observations on participant was done. The 37 interviews was
primary information to help identify themes of study whereas the participant
observations took place at various meetings that was organized by America
Makes. A meeting was organized as final method with 25 leaders from the
government to discuss how to overcome challenges of the technology 3.

          Traceability technology can be used as a
mechanism for quality wood trade and shows the current trend and future
perspectives. The methodology where it was starting with doing revision on
traceability as a tool of quality wood trade. Then, next step is collecting and
studying all the systems of traceability. After that, the summarizing of the
results that shows all the traceability technologies in the form of chronology,
price evaluation, the technology efficiencies and the characteristics. There
are a few of main types of wood traceability which are the marking method of
punching, marking logs with paint, barcodes, QR codes and innovative
experimental technologies which are Radio Frequency Identification
(RFID), microwave sensor to identify system and also fingerprint methods 4. 

          Methods
involved are assessing response patterns and scheduled responses over online
data capture tools. This looks at consideration checks and control validations
to identify oblivious respondents in essential experimental information
collection. These prima facie consideration checks run from the straight
forward such as invert scaling to begin with proposed a century back to later
and included strategies such as assessing reaction designs and coordinated
reactions through online information capture instruments. The consideration
check validations moreover run from effectively executed components such as
programmed location through coordinated questions to profoundly examination of
reactions by the analyst. The latter has the potential to present accidental
analyst inclination as the researcher’s judgment may affect the interpretation
of the information 5.

         Knowledge
creation through engagement and design apply a plan science approach to offer
assistance a Northern European city move forward the proficiency of its
domestic care conveyance framework 6.

      
   Total of 64 challenges that
were split into two categories; Processing Challenges and Metrology Challenges,
these challenges represent possible problems, barriers and areas of concern for
future silicon photovoltaics technologies. Participants were told that these
challenges are within content of emerging materials 7.

 

3.0 Results and Discussions
of the Analyzed Methods

         For the automotive case study, eApps have
been applied to support flexible work environment and activities such as
planning. As for the food industry case study, this app have helped that
industry to reduce planning times, improve packaging and storage processes
especially in monitoring suitable temperature for meat. This eApps have proved
that it is a better alternative than the current digital tools, they not only
can prove consistent information but they make information understandable and
reusable 2.

         As
the result, regulators (in the case of aviation) of emerging technologies are
faced with balancing increasingly tight safety requirements, risks associated
with technological uncertainty, and opportunities for innovation, which could
bring extended social bene?ts. There were 3 base, technology-based,
performance-based, and management based regulation each have advantages and
disadvantages. These o?ers a series of policy mechanisms to balance technology
uncertainty and the need for innovation, independent of regulatory style. However,
not all ?rms in the same industry necessarily have the same knowledge, or less
the same capabilities. Regulators obtain their knowledge directly from
trailblazers. At the same time, suppliers have economic incentives to implement
the technology but do not have the ?nancial resources and human capital to
internally develop the same level of knowledge as the leading companies. 3.

         This
traceability is one of emerging technology that can be used now to increase the
efficiency of the production of wood trade. The process was starting prom
punching, painting, using barcode, QR code, microwave sensor, RFID and lastly
DNA fingerprinting. Hence, this paper proves that using this traceability technology
may improve the supply chain of wood become more efficient 4.     

         The experimental discover of the show work
uncover that build and scale validations appear reliably critical change in the
fit statistics finding of extraordinary
utilize for analysts working predominantly with scales and builds for their
observational models. This result shows that, by their exceptionally nature,
consideration checks may trigger an inborn trade-off between misfortune of test
subjects lowered control and expanded Type II error and the potential of
capitalizing on chance alone the plausibility that the already critical comes
about were in truth the result of Type I blunder. The investigation moreover
appears that the steady loss rates due to consideration checks upwards of 70%
in a few watched samples are distant bigger than ordinarily accepted. Such
misfortune rates raise the specter that ponders not approving consideration may
incidentally increment their Type I mistake rate 5.

       
There
are two results obtained; leveling capacity utilization and improved
productivity. Home care system for senior citizens in two cities in Finland was
able to be improved 6.

         By entering input from RV R&D members,
total of 14 critical challenges were identified for the six sub categories
under to main challenges categories. This Pareto analysis can help to provide
some objectives into PV community’s area of interest and as industry, R
topics need to push for higher efficiency and inexpensive c-Si modules 7.

 

4.0
Advantages/Benefits of the Emerging Technologies

          There
are many benefits or RFID technology which is simultaneous multiple readings,
there are no requirements on line of sight and also the capabilities of read
and write that includes longer range of read. 8.

          Digital technologies for operation management are to
be implemented by using manufacturing or engineering apps (eApps) for the
purpose of manufacturing process and product design. This application can be
used on smart devices, which could be a plus point for any decision support on
the shop floor. This helps support life cycle activities and increase
production efficiency. Besides, this app can also be used for production
planning and scheduling 2.5.0 Disadvantages/
Limitations of Emerging Technologies     
        There
are some limitations on this technology which is in term of the read rate,
reliability of data, lack of unified standard, high prices according to the
hardware and software of technology and also on security issues. Another
limitation on RFID technology is it still needs human intervention for a few
activities 8.
          Since the model is still at its nascence,
many interesting and important topics have not yet been fully explored causing
several disadvantages. Perhaps the most notable one is the lack of empirical
studies to test established theories. The existing supply chain management
model focuses on bounded rationality from supply chain participants. In
practice, however, customers may exhibit bounded rationality to a larger
extent. This is because customers are usually less informed about the market,
they interact with the market less often, and they are not aided by dedicated
decision-making systems. Based on these considerations, incorporating customer bounded
rationality can provide new insights to interested industries 9.          6.0 Recommendation           The
future recommendation from this paper is when applying the RFID technology at
the store level, the visibility may give permission the members of supply chain
to collect the information on the real demand, hence allowing lean assembling
at the level of suppliers and optimizing the replenishment methods at the
centre of distribution. Besides, RFID technology has a capability to increase
the responsiveness of organization in order to manage the urgent situations. 8.         Technology forecasting is currently
one of the famous area of research, even though it offers many opportunities
but accurate forecasting is still an issue due to lack of historical data. To
overcome this, they recommended and have proved that it’s possible to predict
emerging technologies by using supervised learning methods. They overcome that
lack of data problem by labelling data using patents that have been published
in the United States Trademark and Patent Office. Time lag have limited most
studies and this was overcome by depending on backward citations that are
available once patent is published 10.           7.0 Summary
(Strength and Weakness) 

          It
is definitely non deniable that emerging technologies will constantly take
place due to constant innovations by researchers. From all the journals, it can
be concluded that the strength of such emerging technologies can help
production to be a lot easier in terms of helping improving productivity,
quality, stand a place to be unique than existing technologies, improve
customer’s demand, and so on. Whenever there is strength in a technology, there
will always be a weakness. One weakness of emerging technology is that even
though it has abundance of usefulness, but it will not be used my many due to
its implantation cost, or sometimes because it is dubious and may not be so
convincing for many people as it could be quite high tech. Nevertheless,
emerging technologies should constantly take place, researches should constantly
innovate and find something new for the country to be compatible with many
developed countries. When a country has advanced technologies, it will be
looked up to by many people to be followed as example. 

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