Various research studies have been
conducted with regard to drinking behavior and peer pressure in the college context.  This is mainly because most of the students
are believed to be in their teenage life as first-year students and have to
struggle with making rational and independent decisions throughout their life
in college.  Reifman & Watson (2003)
noted that the initial use of alcohol could easily be predicted using peer
links.  By definition, peer influenced
can be considered as a multidimensional construct comprising of both implicit
and explicit aspects of the individual.  The
implicit dimension indicates that the individuals perceive drinking and
misconduct as a group norm while the exact dimension indicates that friends
assert overt pressures on their peers and affect their behavior considerably.  Borsari and Carey (2001) identified three main
areas in which peer influence was clear.  These included overt drinking offers, local
drinking norms, and drinking modeling.  Following
the principles of the social learning theory, alcohol influence can be put in
two ways: direct and indirect.  This literature
review will cover previous studies about alcohol use and peer pressure in three
parts: 1) overt drinking offers (direct), modeling (indirect), and social norms
(indirect).

According to Johnson
(1989), most of the students in college depend on their peers for approval and
emotional comfort.  Since the 50’s peer
influence has been the one constant predictor in the initiation or maintenance
of drinking on college campuses (Gusfield,
1961)
(Maddox,
1970).  As such, most students whose drinking begins
in college have the belief that the behavior will lead to positive social
outcomes (Chen, Grube, & Madden, 1994).  More so, alcohol expectancies are believed to
be significant predictors of drinking levels, mediation of drinking patterns,
and alteration of binge drinking rates (Labbe & Maisto, 2011).  This was also confirmed by a study conducted
by Neighbors et al. (2007) where first-year undergraduate

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