1.1 of material resources is rather serious, so it

 

1.1  (29) Percentage
of long lifetime materials use

The effect of construction industry in terms
of consumption of material resources is rather serious, so it is very important
to minimize these environmental impacts by appropriate selection of materials
(Horáková et all, 2017).

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The above impacts are related to the operating
life of buildings. A calculation is made that a longer life, will return a net
benefit to society, therefore any premium to be paid upfront is compensated
over a very long period (Fernandez, 2012). Buildings with durability require
less maintenance and repairs expenses during their service life and it takes a
longer time before they reach the state when their demolition is needed
(Horáková et all, 2017).

To discuss the above we have identified the
main materials used for the construction of the OVAL Building, which are
reinforced concrete, aluminum, steel and glass.

Reinforced Concrete Frame (Raft
foundation, columns, beams, slabs).

 

The
building structure of Oval consists of
reinforced concrete frames comprising of raft foundation,
columns, beams and slabs.

The
use of reinforced concrete, was always thought to be a long-life material.
Nowadays it is possible to design reinforced concrete structures having service
life span of more than 100 years. Durability of reinforced concrete structures
is mainly dependent on the quality of the concrete, quality of reinforcing
steel, cover depth of reinforcement, compaction and curing of concrete and
finally quality management of the construction practices (NBM & SW, 2017).

The
oval building was designed in line with European anti-earthquake construction
specification codes by the internationally acclaimed architects Atkins in
collaboration with a Cypriot structural engineering team (Hyperstatic
Engineering Design) and Cybarco which both are behind many of the islands
landmark projects known for their outstanding quality and high standards, so have
every right to assume that the above requirements are met.

Rain Screen Aluminum Cladding Panels
(Eastern and western facades) and Aluminum Window Frames

 

The
eastern and western facades of the building have been designed to consist of
rain screen aluminum cladding panels fixed on a secondary steel structure. The
southern and northern facades are designed as a conventional glazed window
system supported by aluminum frames.

Aluminum
materials are materials that have good impact resistance, good stiffness and
are relatively lightweight and therefore, they are so commonly used as a finish
material for a building enclosure Also, aluminum is the material of choice for
curtain walling, window frames and other glazed structures (Fernandez, 2012).

One of the most important reasons aluminum is
so highly appreciated in the building sector is for its very long in-service
life, low maintenance and its contribution to the energy performance of
buildings. Aluminum building products are made from alloys that are weatherproof,
corrosion-resistant and immune to the harmful effects of UV rays, ensuring
optimal performance over a very long period and they do not require any
maintenance. Aluminum does not burn (over650°C, but without releasing harmful
gases) and is therefore classified as a non-combustible construction material
(EUROPEAN ALUMINIUM ASSOCIATION, n.d.).

Steel structure with thermal insulation
(Support aluminum panels)

 

As referred above the aluminum cladding panels
at the eastern and western facades of the building are fixed on a secondary
steel structure.

Steel is a uniquely sustainable material
because once it is made it can be used, as steel, forever. Steel is infinitely
recycled, so the investment in making steel is never wasted and can be
capitalized on by future generations (Tata Steel, 2018).

In line with relevant codes, designed and
constructed steel structures provide long-term durability and demonstrate
excellent service life. Building codes and industry standards require that
steel structures be designed to tolerate corrosion or be protected against
corrosion where corrosion may impair strength or serviceability (Steel Market Development Institute, 2015). In Oval case and because of the exposure of the building to
marine atmosphere (just 100 meters from the sea), higher-performance coatings
should be used. Steel framing is resistant to mold and not vulnerable to
termites since it is inorganic and does not provide a food source for them.
These makes the building structure stronger and more resilient (Steel Market Development Institute, 2015).

Glazed Window System (Southern and
northern facades)

 

The southern and northern facades of the
building are designed as a conventional glazed window system. All glasses are
double glazed. Strength of glass depends on modulus of rupture value of glass.
In general glass is a brittle material but by adding admixtures and laminates
we can make it as stronger (The Constructor – Civil Engineering, 2017).

In conclusion we could say that the main
materials used for the construction of the Oval Building are high durability
materials. This, in a way, was expected since the building is designed in line
with European anti-earthquake construction specification codes.

1.2  (30) Level of
materials’ environmental embodiment potentiality

The
US Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that the materials debris from
building renovation and demolition comprise 25 to 30% of all waste produced in
the US each year (Guy et all, 2006).

The excessive use of natural resources to
produce construction materials is damaging for the environment because of the
depletion of such resources and the toxic emissions produced during the
manufacturing process (Safiuddin et al, 2010).

Consequently, many authorities and
investigators are working to develop methods of reusing the wastes in
environmentally and economically sustainable ways (Aubert et al., 2006). At the
following paragraphs the possibility of recycling and reusing of the main
construction materials of the Oval Building will be examined.

Reinforced Concrete Frame (Raft
foundation, columns, beams, slabs)

 

Concrete is the most widely used construction
material worldwide, with billions of tons produced every year. This volume
alone is the basis for an enormous environmental footprint of the concrete
industry. In addition, the cement industry is estimated to be responsible for
approximately 6 to 7 percent of all CO2 produced worldwide (Meyer, 2013). The
traditional disposal of the large amounts of concrete waste in landfills is no
longer acceptable, especially in countries where the remaining landfill
capacity has been estimated to last for only a few more years (Kasai et al,
2004). Today aggregates from construction, demolition and excavation waste,
have been recycled and used as partial replacements for natural aggregates in
concrete. In many countries recycled concrete debris is used mostly for
road-base or sub-base material (Hansen et al, 2004).

Rain Screen Aluminum Cladding Panels
(Eastern and western facades) and Aluminum Window Frames

 

Aluminum is a metal predestined for recycling.
The alloys used can be recycled with only little loss in quality and at
comparatively low energy cost. However only approximately 30% of the aluminum
produced is available for recycling. Some material is available for recycling
after lengthy periods of time partly due to its durability for instance in the
construction industry. Today aluminum scrap is a valuable commodity that is
traded worldwide (Schmitz, 2006).

Steel structure (Support aluminum panels)
and Reinforcement

 

The reinforcing steel is almost 100% recycled.
For example, all steel reinforcement manufactured in the United Kingdom is made
from 100% recycled scrap metal (Orlowski, 2002). When steel is recycled, there
is no down-grading. It is recycled and used again, without any loss of quality,
time after time.  The investment of resources in making steel is not
wasted because steel is not consumed. The non-renewable resources used to make
steel, like minerals and fossil fuels, are not wasted because the steel will be
used forever (Goggins et al, 2010).

Glazed Window System (Southern and
northern facades)

 

Glass is not biodegradable and therefore
creates a problem for solid waste disposal. The disposal into landfills also
does not provide any environment-friendly solution (Shao et al., 2000). Hence,
the use of waste glass in construction materials can be a worthy solution to
the environmental problem caused by this solid waste. A clean dry glass powder
is useful as a substitute for Portland cement in concrete and its use can be
advantageous with respect to the properties and durability of cement (Topcu and
Canbaz, 2004). Also, the waste glass can be mixed with clay in different
proportions to prepare high quality bricks (Loryuenyong et al., 2009).

1.3  (31) Positive
impacts on district forest areas (NOT APPLICABLE)

This
parameter is irrelevant regarding our building. The only comment we can make is
that for the construction of the building the quantity of wood that was used is
minor (Timber veneered solid core entrance doors). Thus, we could say that this
is an indirect positive effect.

1.4  (32) Percentage
of areas under high water salinity as a cause of over irrigation (NOT
APPLICABLE)

This
parameter is irrelevant regarding our building. Landscaped area of the
development is too small, so the amount of water used for irrigation is
considered too small to be considered.

1.5  (33) Level of
developments’ compactivity

Urban sprawl gave rise to inefficiency of land
use, infrastructure cost (electricity, development of roads, water supply and
drainage system) and let to transportation burden and exponential energy
consumption (Shin, 2012).

Large cities are adopting compact urban
concept for sustainability and one of the most effective ways is to build
sustainable tall buildings. This kind of development model comes from the
United States’ large cities and has been recognized as the most feasible
alternative in city development. The center in cities is packed with super tall
buildings and 50% out of the rest of the area is green zone where ecological
pillar is set, which is the characteristics of Sustainable Compact City (Shin,
2012).

The Oval is indeed a compact development since
is one of the tallest buildings in Cyprus, consisting of 16 floors (75m) and
covering a built area of approximately 400 square meters. Every floor offers an
open plan design making it simple to adjust to tenant’s requirements, with the
option to divide the space to accommodate up to four separate offices.

However, tall buildings in urban areas are
built where adequate infrastructure such as public transportation is well in
place (Shin, 2012). Unfortunately, this is not the case for Cyprus where
authorities have issued many permits for the construction of tall buildings
without taking any measures for the transportation burden that will arise.
Also, the Cyprus regulations relating fire-safety should be reexamined by Fire
and Planning Department. As for now there is no specific provision for very
tall buildings (current guidelines up to 30 floors). In addition, tall buildings
in cities like Limassol should not be designed in isolation, but in relation to
the area in which they are set and effects to neighboring properties should be considered
(theguardian, 2014).

1.6  (34) Level of
intestinal infectious diseases hazard (NOT APPLICABLE)

This
parameter is irrelevant regarding our building.

1.7  (35) Level of
measures ensuring residents’ health

Indoor air quality is a key concern for
buildings that are used by large groups of people, such as offices and meeting
rooms. The monolithic nature of concrete construction reduces hidden spaces
where insects, rodents, and biological hazards can accumulate and infiltrate
into the occupied spaces. Further, reinforced concrete does not contain
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which threaten people and the environment
(Concrete Reinforcing Steel institute, 2009)

Several studies have proved that aluminum
building products do not present a hazard to occupants or the surrounding
environment. Studies prove that the alloys used, their surface treatments (either
coating or anodizing) and the materials used are all neutral. Aluminum building
products have no negative impact, either on indoor air quality or on soil,
surface and groundwater (EUROPEAN ALUMINIUM ASSOCIATION, n.d.)

Office and toilet areas of the Oval Building
are decorated with perforated gypsum tile suspended ceiling fixed in metal grid
system. The metal framework is proposed by the Institute of Health Building of
America for owners with sensitivity to chemical materials, environmentally
conscious, who also are looking for good quality air into their house. The
metal frames need no treatment for canker as they do not contain resins and
chemical adhesives that some other building materials have (Metalframe
Construction, 2016) 

The extensive glazing maximizes daylight and
minimizes heat gain. Additionally, the ventilation, heating and water systems
are state of the art and meet the highest environmental standards (The
Constructor – Civil Engineering, 2017).

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